CSE 261 is an introduction to digital structures B, the basic components of a computer. These components are digital in nature; that is, they handle individually distinct electronic signals which represent letters, numbers, and other symbolic characters. Students begin the course by learning elementary logic and Boolean algebra, which form the basic language of the digital computer. After the basic logic elements are introduced, students discover how such elements can be combined to create basic computer components such as registers and control logic devices. Later course topics include memory and storage, sequen­tial circuits, and arithmetic components.

## Course Outline

1. Boolean Algebra and Logic States: basic operations (and, not, or); Boolean expressions; truth tables; basic theorems; communicative, associative, and distributive laws; simplifi­cation theorems; expansion; factoring; inversion; duality; consensus theorem; DeMorgan’s Law; sum‑of‑products and product‑of‑sums; positive and negative logic; proving validity in logic expressions; exclusive B or expressions; equivalence operations.
2. Minimization: using truth tables for minimization, minterms and maxterms; minterm and maxterm expansions; incompletely specified expressions; two, three, and four‑variable Karnaugh Maps; definition of prime implicants; finding essential prime implicants; multivariable Karnaugh Maps; limitations of Karnaugh Maps; analytical determination of prime implicants; prime implicant chart; Quine‑McCluskey Method.
3. Combinatoric Networks: multi-level networks; NAND gates; NOR gates; mixed gate networks; multiplexers; decoders; read-only memories; network design limitations.
4. Memory and Storage: time delay through logic gates; timing diagrams; set-reset flip-flop; delay flip-flop; set and clear; clocked flip-flops; characteristic equations; binary counter; synchronous binary counter; state graph; different counter designs with different flip-flop types; J-K master-slave flip-flop; code converters and shift registers.
5. Sequential circuits: Mealy and Moore machines; state tables; state diagram; design of a parity checker; design of a sequence detector; initial states; elimination of redundant states; equivalent states; implication table; equivalent sequential networks; incompletely specified states; derivation of the logic gates needed to implement a state table.
6. Arithmetic Circuits: binary numbers B base 2; 1’s complement and 2’s complement B negative number representations; overflows and underflows; half adder; dealing with the carry; full adder; half subtractor; full subtractor; ripple adder; carry-look ahead adder B speed-up arithmetic; multiplication array; division network; combined arithmetic units.
7. Asynchronous Machines: difference between synchronous and asynchronous networks; example of standard R-S circuits; primitive flow table; state transition table; timing diagrams; implementation of the state table with gates and flip-flops; race conditions and cycles; reduction of the flow table; state assignment; implementation or realization of state assignments; hazards; essential hazards; synchronous design procedures and examples.

## Equipment Requirements

One microcomputer work station per four to five students is required. A work station should include microcomputer, disk drives, color monitor, and access to a printer. (Lab equipment & technology requires approval of Professor Robert Irwin, faculty coordinator.)